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Organelles are discrete membranous structures found within eukaryotic cells that act as the main site for producing lipids, steroids and calcium ions.

Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum (SER)

Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) can be found in most eukaryotic cells and comprises an intricate network of tubules and sacs known as cisternae that are linked by membrane-bound tubules and sacs (cisternae). As one of its largest organelles within cells – comprising up to half its surface area -, ER accounts for almost 50% of surface area coverage within each cell.

The rough ER contains ribosomes on its surface, giving it its distinctive rough appearance. Proteins destined to become part of cell membrane or exported out from cells enter this organelle before heading toward their final destinations in other cells or being exported outside.

Smooth ERs lack ribosomes and thus have a more delicate, non-ribosomal appearance. They play an integral role in processes other than protein synthesis such as lipid synthesis and detoxification; liver cells have an abundance of these smooth ERs for glycogen metabolism as well as detoxification of drugs or other potentially toxic substances.

Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (RER)

Rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) is covered in ribosomes and features a distinctive granular appearance under a microscope. RER serves as the major site for protein synthesis, folding, posttranslational modifications and calcium storage; additionally it plays a key role in lipid metabolism and calcium storage and provides proteins and lipids to Golgi apparatus, plant vacuoles, secretory vesicles and plasma membrane.

The ER has an internal quality control mechanism to prevent damaged proteins from being transported further through organelles or plasma membranes, and back into cytosol for degradation by proteasomes. RER cells are found in high secretory cells such as exocrine pancreatic acinar cells but usually disappear when granulopoiesis is completed and proplatelets form.


Nucleoplasm is a viscous liquid found within a cell’s nucleus that contains its chromatin and nucleolus structures, providing support and aiding DNA replication and transcription processes.

Nucleoplasm contains many different kinds of enzymes essential for initiating and catalyzing reactions within the nucleus. DNA polymerase is perhaps best-known among these, while others like hexokinase, TPN-linked isocitric dehydrogenase, 6-P-gluconic dehydrogenase and P-fructokinase also reside there.

Nucleoplasm serves as a key hub for many key cell functions, including DNA replication, transcription, cell growth and division, protein synthesis and movement in and out of the nucleus via nuclear pores that allow selective passage of materials like ions, molecules such as RNA or proteins etc.


Lysosomes are acidic compartments containing hydrolytic enzymes which break down complex macromolecules (proteins, carbohydrates, lipids and nucleic acids). Lysosomes can be found throughout all eukaryotic cells’ cytoplasm.

Lysosomes serve an essential function in disposing of waste material brought in through endocytosis or autophagy, but also play key roles in cell signalling and energy metabolism.

They digest and recycle intracellular components and extracellular materials delivered to them through waste clearance processes such as chaperone-mediated autophagy or macroautophagy, and participate in cell growth and survival, programmed cell death, membrane repair, nutrient sensing and immune responses. Furthermore, they form membrane contact sites with other organelles to exchange signaling information or shuttle metabolites around. As a result, these organelles have also come to be known as Suicide Bags.


Peroxisomes are organelles responsible for detoxifying cells and are involved in many essential cellular processes, from signalling platforms and defence/development functions, to communication between organelles. Dysfunction of peroxisomes has been linked with various human diseases including metabolic conditions like X-linked aldoleukodystrophy (where long chain fatty acids do not break down properly).

Super-resolution microscopy techniques that go beyond the diffraction limit have provided new insights into the dynamics and morphology of individual peroxisomes, providing new information regarding their dynamics and dynamics. They feature higher surface area to volume ratios than their predecessors as they undergo membrane growth and division processes; additionally they contain catalase enzyme which breaks down hydrogen peroxide to water and oxygen for further degradation.

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